|A Brief History Of The United Nations by Goodboy(m): Thu 07, April, 2022|
Following recent happenings that have threatened world peace and security, it has become needful that we recount the history of the one organization that marketed mankind's most significant push for World Peace —The United Nations.
There are three noteworthy takeaways when the history of the UN is revisited:
1. The United Nations's quest, before world peace, was to defeat the Axis (Japan, Germany, and Italy) and win World War ll
2. The United Nation has as it's founding nations, some of the nations that in recent history have become grave enemies of each other; most notable is the US, UK, Russia (then the USSR), Iran, and China.
3. The United Nation took about 4 years to become a reality, involving numerous Treaties and Charters held and signed at different times and at different locations across the world.
The idea behind the UN was to create an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace, but before that could happens, a war needed to be won.
Declaration of St. James Palace (June 1941)
By June 1941, practically all of Europe had fallen to the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan), and on 12 June 1941, representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa as well as representatives of the exiled governments from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and the Free French, met in London to sign the Declaration of St. James Palace to pledge their solidarity in fighting aggression until victory against the Axis powers was won.
Atlantic Charter (August 1941)
In August 1941, the Axis powers still has the upper hand. Then one afternoon, two months after the Declaration of St. James Palace, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill had a meet on the high sea, and the outcome was a joint declaration now known as the Atlantic Charter.
The sixth clause of the Atlantic Charter highlights what it's about: “after the final destruction of Nazi tyranny they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.”
Support for this declaration was signed on September 24 by the USSR and the nine exiled governments of occupied Europe: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and by the representatives of General de Gaulle of France.
Declaration by United Nations (1 January 1942)
On New Year’s Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration. The next day, the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. The governments that signed this declaration pledged to accept the Atlantic Charter and agreed not to negotiate a separate peace with any of the Axis powers.
Moscow Declaration (October 1943) and Tehran Conference (December 1943)
In October 1943, representatives from Great Britain, the United States, China and the Soviet Union met in Moscow. On October 30 these representatives signed the Moscow Declaration. The Declaration pledged joint action in dealing with the enemies’ surrender, and further developed the idea of an intergovernmental organization that would maintain peace and security in the world that was implicit in the Atlantic Charter.
In December, two months after the Moscow Declaration, Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill, met for the first time in Tehran, the capital of Iran, where they worked out the Allies final strategy for winning the war.
Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta Conference (1944-1945)
A blueprint had to be prepared for the UN, and it had to be accepted by many nations. For this purpose, representatives of China, Great Britain, the USSR and the United States met at Dumbarton Oaks, a private mansion in Washington, D. C.
According to the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, the organization, to be known as the United Nations, would consist of four principal bodies:
1. A General Assembly composed of all the members
2. A Security Council of eleven members, of which five would be permanent and the other six would be chosen by the General Assembly for two year terms.
3. An International Court of Justice
4. A Secretariat.
Other things were also outlined in the conference, including: preventing future wars —a responsibility conferred upon the Security Council, and mandating member states to place armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council, if needed, to prevent war or suppress acts of aggression.
San Francisco Conference (1945)
The main objective of the San Francisco conference, officially known as the "United Nations Conference on International Organization" (UNCIO), was to produce a Charter for this new organization that would be acceptable to all the countries.
Attendees represented over eighty per cent of the world's population. There were 850 delegates, and the total number of people attending the conference was 3,500. In addition, there were more than 2,500 media representatives and observers from many organizations. The San Francisco Conference was not only one of the most important in history but, perhaps, the largest international gathering ever to take place.
The San Francisco Conference accomplished its monumental work: using the Dumbarton Oaks proposals and the Yalta agreement as a starting point, the proposed Charter was divided into different sections and committees. Owing to the weight of the task before them, there were approximately 400 meetings of the different committees. No stone needed to be left unturned.
It was in this conference that the UN's voting system was first used. When it was to discuss and vote on the work drafted by the various committees. As the issue of backing the outcomes of the conference was put out, every delegate rose and remained standing. So did everyone present, the staffs, the press and some 3000 visitors. There was great applause; the Charter has been passed, The United Nations has been formed.
At the time of the San Francisco conference, Poland, one of the original signatories of the Declaration, did not have its new government in place and therefore could not attend. On June 28, the new Polish government was announced. By October 15, 1945 Poland had signed the Charter that was written in San Francisco and is therefore considered one of the original Members of the new United Nations.
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